METAL STAMPING TECHNIQUES
A blanking die is a very simple die that produces a flat piece part with no holes. The die cuts the desired periphery shape in one operation. Blanking dies are capable of producing very accurate and flat parts. The part produced in a blanking die is referred to as a blank. The blank is often used in subsequent operations such as forming.
A forming die performs bending and forming operations on a piece part. Typically a forming die uses a pre-cut blank, and often has a means of accurately locating and holding the part in position during the forming operation in order to produce consistent parts. Forming dies can range from a single bend to complex multi-axis dies that perform many bends and forms simultaneously.
EMBOSS OR COINING DIE
An emboss die is somewhat similar to a forming die, except that the die compresses the metal blank in a confined area. The compression allows malleable metal to emboss, or raise, into a form. The process allows for raised features on one side of the blank, as in a coin, and a flat or reverse image surface on the back.
A pierce die punches holes, either round or shaped, into a part. Pierce dies only punch internal features. Typically the part’s periphery shape has already been cut with a blank die, lazer cutting machine, or some other method.
CUT OFF DIE
A cut off die removes excess material from the end of a part. Can also be used to cut uniform lengths of strip material to be used in another process or operation.
A trim die is generally the last operation, removing excess or irregular material from a part.
A compound die cuts a part’s internal holes and outer periphery shape at the same time with one press stroke. A compound die yields very accurate part size as well as excellent hole to periphery relationship.
A draw die is a type of forming die where the piece part undergoes severe plastic deformation and the part is “drawn” into a die cavity. A one piece metal cup would be an example of a drawn part. More difficult, deeper drawn parts are often made with a series of draw dies. Each subsequent die forces more material into the die cavity, making it possible to draw deeper than a single hit draw die. This method is called deep drawing.
SIDE CAM DIE
A side cam die uses conventional die methods (piercing, forming, etc.,) but can perform these operations at virtually any angle. The slide cam drivers are used to convert vertical punch press motion to the desired angled or horizontal motion.
Stage tooling is a sequential set of dies, each performing a single operation on a part. Stage tooling is typically comprised of some combination of a blanking die, forming die, cut off die, piercing die, coining die, and/or a trim die. It is sometimes possible for stage tooling to be flexible enough to be used for more than one part. Stage tooling can be cost effective for small quantity part needs.
A progressive die contains a series of process stations in a single die. The part material is advanced through the press in precise increments, with each individual station performing it’s operation simultaneously with each stroke of the press. The last station separates the part. Progressive dies are often used to produce complex parts. For producing large quantities of parts at a rapid pace, a progressive die can be more economical than stage tooling.
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